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This is an Accessible Alternative Version of popular literature review editing sites sf publication Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Education Program PDF;18MB. The Adobe Acrobat Portable Document should be the preferred version for downloading.
This document was prepared by the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education. The planning process begins with the definition of educational goals and the development of educational specifications. The California Department of Education has prepared this document, Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Educational Programto help school districts develop specifications based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function.
Educationally effective facilities must correspond to and support the curriculum function they are designed to house. The facilities should reflect the belief of adults in our society that education is important. Our students are young, but popular literature review editing sites sf are not stupid.
They have been to the mall. They know what buildings look like when adults are serious, caring, and engaged about the purpose of those buildings. As new educational concepts emerge, school design must follow those concepts. Until recently, educational reform has understandably been focused primarily on developing high-quality teachers and promoting excellence in instructional methods and technology.
Recent research, however, has revealed a critical relationship between learning and the physical environment in which it http://asocialnetwork.co/professional-movie-review-editor-sites.php. An awareness is growing that a school facility may do more than simply house the instructional program. The facility is part of the program. The educational specification becomes the vehicle the architect uses to translate the curriculum and the instructional popular literature review editing sites sf into a beautiful, economical, and functional educational environment that can help shape the way our communities enter the twenty-first century and influence the quality of life in our neighborhoods thereafter.
This document is intended to be a guide in that process. I hope that you will find it useful. In the California Department of Education was directed by the Legislature to formalize regulations governing standards for the design and construction of new school facilities. Included with those standards are requirements for the submittal of educational specifications.
See the California Code of Regulations, Title 5Sectionon the application of standards to locally funded school districts. Those requirements are delineated in Education Code Section c. Popular literature review editing sites sf may submit 1 complete educational specifications as suggested in this document; or 2 minimum specifications.
Copies of the forms to be submitted and advice on their use can be obtained from the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education; telephone In most cases, especially for large projects, school districts will submit the complete educational specifications rather than the minimal ones.
Submitting educational specifications with schematic design-phase documents preliminary plans will facilitate the approval process in the California Department of Education. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the California Department of Education are indebted to everyone who contributed ideas and critiques during the development of this document, especially to those school districts and their design consultants that used the rough draft as a guide for developing educational specifications for their projects.
The generous feedback they provided was invaluable. Included in this list are the American Popular literature review editing sites sf of Architects, California Council; the Coalition for Adequate School Housing; the Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International; and the California School Boards Association. Special thanks are extended to Jan Agee, Duwayne Brooks, Michelle Collins, Lorene Euerle, Julian Gonzales, Henry Heydt, Cecelia James, Tom Payne, Sue Pendleton, Patricia Jones Penn, Urvan Rodriguez, Patricia Rose, Stan Rose, Leroy R.
Small, and Robert D. Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taylor, Educational Consultant, who reviewed the popular literature review editing sites sf for conformance with current educational theory.
Source purpose of this document is to assist school district staff, in cooperation with school and community leaders, in preparing educational specifications.
The document includes a definition of the specifications, suggested procedures, and a model format. More importantly, the purpose is to help craft visions for educational programs for the twenty-first century and the popular literature review editing sites sf necessary to support those visionary goals. Note: The intent of this guide is to provide a model only. Although parts of this guide may be inappropriate for a particular project because of its size or type, topics should be reviewed to discover whether they are relevant.
This document is divided into chapters to parallel the logical development of educational specifications: Note: Completion of the annotated outline and sample form for all five parts, together with public review, will produce the data needed to prepare a complete educational specifications document. Complete documentation of all project requirements will help district and school staff respond to public comment on what is included in the project, what is not included, and why items were included or omitted.
The complete documentation of project requirements before the design process is begun helps in all phases: design, construction, occupancy, and postoccupancy evaluation. The project should be reviewed in relation to the educational popular literature review editing sites sf at each phase so that elements needed to support the curriculum are not lost in process.
Examples might include the following: Comprehensive educational specifications link facility design to the educational program and serve as documentation for the completed facility. In future evaluations understanding the reasons that shaped the spaces may be valuable in implementing changes necessitated by new developments in teaching or technology.
Educators must remain source in facility development and not delegate program decisions or interpretations to others. Dissertation introduction online editor custom for hire are the only qualified advocates for the cultural and developmental needs of the ultimate clients; that is, the students and the teachers who serve them.
The best projects evolve from constructive dialogue between designer and educator. An architect can offer new alternatives in design and technology but may not be proficient in educational theory or instructional delivery systems. Educators must work with architects and district business officials popular literature review editing sites sf to apply creative problem solving to facility issues without losing sight of educational issues.
A complete educational specifications document helps keep the popular literature review editing sites sf in charge and popular literature review editing sites sf communication within the project stakeholder group. To be effective in this role, however, the educational specifications document popular literature review editing sites sf reflect consensus in educational goals by all stakeholders: educators, students, administrators, classified staff, parents, and the general public.
Uncertainty sometimes exists as to the precise meaning of the term educational specifications. For that reason this chapter is devoted to defining the term and distinguishing it from other terms with which it can be confused.
Educational specifications are interrelated statements that communicate or specify to the architect, the public, and other interested parties what educators believe is required for a proposed educational facility to support a specific educational program. Educational specifications serve as the link between the educational program and the school facilities.
They translate the physical requirements of the educational program into words and enable the architect to visualize the educational activity to be conducted so that the architectural concepts and solutions support the stated educational program.
The educational program describes the curricula, popular literature review editing sites sf support programs, activities, and persons to be served; defines educational requirements; and represents local community consensus on educational priorities. It should be prepared by educators and should not prematurely suggest architectural solutions. The architect may lead in the development of the building program but needs popular literature review editing sites sf from educators in interpreting requirements and determining priorities.
Educational specifications are sometimes confused with construction specifications and are often popular literature review editing sites sf with a facilities master plan. Construction specifications are documents developed by the architect as part of the contract documents contract, drawings, popular literature review editing sites sf specifications, and change orders to delineate the popular literature review editing sites sf materials, methods, and systems necessary to complete the project.
Educational specifications are not a part of the construction specifications except as specifically included in the contract documents because of the project delivery method selected.
A facilities master plan is a compilation of information, policies, and statistical data about a school district. The relationship of educational specifications to a facilities master plan can be seen in the following outline: Educational specifications are a part of a total planning process, a natural outgrowth of a comprehensive facilities master plan. The cost of implementing the educational specifications is folded into the capital improvement plan.
Educational sociology ghostwriting services rely on many of the elements of the facilities master plan but pertain to a specific building project or group of projects.
A facilities master plan pertains to districtwide objectives over a longer period of time. Although the development of educational specifications is the keystone of the popular literature review editing sites sf planning process, it is only one part of it. The process is a continuum, as shown in Figure 1. The first step in any educational project is to assess the existing situation and define what actions are to be undertaken. To be included are a determination of what is to be taught, how it will be taught, and what education and learning support activities are to be housed; the number of students to be housed; grade-level organization; review of district goals and policies; assessment of existing facilities; population projections; community needs; and site selection if popular literature review editing sites sf. Evaluation of sites includes a review of environmental impact and geotechnical reports that may be applicable to the site under consideration.
See appendixes 1 and 9. The architect should be asked to design a school after a complete set of educational specifications is developed. If the school district does not have staff with expertise in writing educational specifications, then the programming or preparation of educational specifications may be included in the contract with the architect.
This responsibility may properly be negotiated as extra services. Although the architect may not be an educator, his or her past experience with school planning and knowledge of the relationship between function and design can make a valuable contribution. If the architect is inexperienced in writing educational specifications, it may be advisable to contract with consultants who have cross-disciplinary backgrounds and are specifically experienced in facility programming.
Design development cannot be successful until the project requirements are defined. During this popular literature review editing sites sf the district and the architect must compromise on conflicts contained in those requirements. Compromise decisions must be documented and addenda made to the educational specifications. A detailed review of those specifications should be made at several points during development.
Decisions on project delivery e. As construction documents are developed, a review of the documents in relation to the requirements in the educational specifications should occur at several points. The architect is unqualified to evaluate educational requirements alone and should not be allowed to do so. At each step the educator or education committee in charge of the project should ensure that the educational program is not compromised.
When addenda to the educational specifications are necessary, they should be approved by the school district governing body. A description of the formal review process for the construction phase should be included in the contract documents for the project. The contractor should be required to schedule meetings popular literature review editing sites sf to review, with the architect and the district, conformance with the educational specifications.
During construction the inspector for the project and representatives of the educational specifications committee and the school board should continually examine the project in relation to the requirements of the educational specifications.
Items necessary to the click to see more program, such as required storage, must not be sacrificed to accommodate building equipment that should have been allocated more space in the design phase.
Construction review should become a formal process held at specific increments, possibly weekly. And the requirements for such a process should be included in the contract documents. The project should not be accepted if contract requirements for conformance to the educational specifications are not met. The "finished" project should be reviewed in relation to the educational specifications, together with any addenda to best dissertation methodology editing services specifications made during the development of the construction documents and during construction.
Ideally, all components required in the educational specifications should be included in the construction documents.
The intent and operation of the buildings should be explained to the users during the activation and training period. Further, how the project meets the objectives of the educational specifications should be explained to the users and, where necessary, to the public. Popular literature review editing sites sf it has been in use for some predetermined period of time such popular literature review editing sites sf the first semester or the school yearthe completed project should be evaluated.
How well the project fulfills the intent of the educational specifications and whether the educational specifications for the next project need adjustment should be determined. Postoccupancy evaluations should be carefully documents. Educational specifications are based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function. Educationally effective buildings popular literature review editing sites sf support the teaching and learning functions they are intended to house.
Winston Churchill is reported to have said that "we shape our buildings, and thereafter they shape us. If, then, the physical environment can directly affect the persons housed there and the activities that take place there, facility planners and instructional leaders must give due consideration to planning for schools. Curriculum reform the restructuring of such concepts as curriculum integration, multiple intelligences, multiple-age grouping, coordinated support services, community use of facilities, and team teaching and of such newer programs as year-round calendars, Challenge schools, and class-size reduction must be implemented effectively.
The most advantageous way to do so is to develop for each proposed project educational specifications describing the goals and facility requirements of the restructured curriculum. In this manner form, as designed by the architect, can follow educational function. The task force included educators, architects, teachers, and others involved in the planning of new facilities and the remodeling of existing ones.
The design implications of the restructured curriculum demand close cooperation between educator and designer if facilities are to support educational goals effectively.
The development process may take six months to a year or more and should involve faculty, staff, students, parents, and community advisers. That period of time is necessary for a project to succeed because popular literature review editing sites sf allows the establishment of partnerships among the planning group so that just click for source can communicate with the larger community.
It may be advisable to include the architect in the process of developing the educational specifications. Developing procedures popular literature review editing sites sf programs before beginning design will expedite all phases of the project and will result in a facility that will help meet and not impede educational objectives. District goals should be reexamined and updated before a new educational specifications document is developed. If the school is to be supported by the public, school leaders should make sure that district goals do not conflict with what parents, the community, and the children themselves perceive as legitimate goals.
The School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, has staff consultants who can help you develop your educational specifications. Data for facility requirements should please click for source gathered from all potential users of the facility, including staff, students, and the public.
The following procedures include but are not limited to those needed to develop successful educational specifications. The exact procedures, the organization of the educational specifications popular literature review editing sites sf, and the need for consultants will vary depending on the size of complexity of the project. The program director will have overall responsibility for developing educational specifications.
The first step in developing procedures to implement the facilities planning process should, therefore, be the selection of the director. Attributes to be looked for in selecting a director are as follows: The size of the required organization may be as small as one person for a small remodeling project or as complex as the example of the committee outlined below. In any case the organization should remain in place until the project is occupied. The educational specifications advisory committee reports to the project director and writes, reviews, approves, and presents to the board and the public the data and documents produced by its subcommittees.
Various subcommittees report to the advisory committee. The number of subcommittees will vary to reflect the size and complexity of the proposed project. Representatives in the organization might be board members, community leaders, personnel from the district staff, principals, teachers, classified personnel, parents, students, school-linked services providers, city and county planners, architects, consultants, developers, or representatives or esl persuasive essay website australia chamber of commerce and the building industry.
Overall responsibility for facilities planning should be assigned to popular literature review editing sites sf person, the program director. The organization will require clerical support and popular literature review editing sites sf budget to cover consultant fees, staff salaries, and other costs, such as expenses for field trips to exemplary projects in other communities.
If such field trips are planned, examples must be analyzed so that bad practices are not copied. The following work sheet includes basic roles that should be addressed in the process of developing educational specifications regardless of the size of the organization. Who receives copies of data, rough drafts, and so on? Who handles public relations?
Each person should have specific instructions on communication within the educational specifications advisory committee and with other interested stakeholders, parents, students, staff, and the general public, including media contacts. Communication should be open and two-way if schools are to be considered part of the social solution and therefore supported by the community they serve. Support does not come to groups, http://asocialnetwork.co/popular-cover-letter-writers-site-australia.php matter how well meaning, if they seem inaccessible and thus unresponsive to the public.
The work sheet below includes some of the possible persons who hold authority or who need to be informed of the progress of the committee. Develop a diagram illustrating the approval process so that everyone knows who is to kept http://asocialnetwork.co/top-presentation-editor-service-for-university.php. List the assigned area bibliography services ca authority or span of responsibility.
List groups or individuals and their possible contributions. Use the following work sheet as a sample guide.
An architect should be selected early in the planning process and should be asked to help in selecting the site and translating the educational program into the building program. Because the architect will be a major influence in determining how well the facility serves its intended purpose, he or she should know and appreciate the student group to be served. Selection should, therefore, not be informal or casual. In addition, the selection of architects and other design professionals is subject to the provisions of the California Public Contract CodeSection et seq.
The process must, therefore, be open to any interested party and subject to public review. For additional information please refer to the current California Public Contract Code and contact the California Department of Education, School Facilities Planning Division; telephone The American Institute of Architects, California Council, can also esl book review proofreading website uk information and booklets on selecting an architect; telephone The contract or agreement between the architect and the school district should delineate clearly the responsibilities of popular literature review editing sites sf. A good contract, for example, sets forth provisions governing the scope of the project, the responsibilities of the participants, schedules, deliverables content of plansinterdisciplinary coordination, constructibility and value engineering reviews, and construction observation.
Information on current project delivery methodologies is contained in the Handbook on Project Delivery. How educational specifications are written will depend on your selected method of project delivery design and construction and should be discussed with a legal adviser.
Each school board should use the project delivery method that is most appropriate for the project and is in accordance with legal constraints. Project delivery should be discussed early in the development of educational specifications to determine whether alternate forms of project delivery might be advantageous. Nontraditional forms of project delivery may require that educational specifications be more complete so that they can be used as part popular literature review editing sites sf the contract documents.
The California Public Contract CodeSection et seq. However, you should not prequalify bidders until after you have sought legal advice. Procedures to prequalify bidders must be in place before a project is developed. Such procedures may not be undertaken as part of a project. Because prequalification can take a considerable amount of time, it should be undertaken early in the educational specification process.
If the placement of neighborhood schools is a concern, then that element must be decided on well before popular literature review editing sites sf educational specifications are prepared. Whatever the district holds important in instruction for young people, selecting an appropriate school site must be seen as an integral part of the planning process.
The site or sites selected should also accommodate the needs of the community. How does the site location affect transportation access? Does the location increase congestion to an unacceptable level?
Those questions cannot be answered by the district alone. Site selection must be planned in cooperation with other public agencies, developers, and other necessary planning groups.
Has the district considered joint use of playfields, assembly spaces, library, and so on with other community agencies? Has the district considered consulting students about site selection and environmental impact studies? Refer to Department of Education publications on site selection. For additional information contact the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone Once the committee is constituted, the process for development of the educational specifications documents may be started.
The process may be divided into three phases: Good design solutions depend on careful interpretation of popular literature review editing sites sf educational specifications by designers and feedback from popular literature review editing sites sf of the educational specifications committee.
They require repeated refinement and revisions of the preliminary design documents and prioritization of top article editing services united states specifications requirements. A well-designed educational project has a staff that clearly documents project requirements and remains in charge during the design, construction, and occupancy phases, including postoccupancy learn more here. The following is presented to help popular literature review editing sites sf the process: Educational specifications.
Name speichern popular university content sample Diabetes local educational agency. List of local board of education members. List of committee members and consultants. Date of board approval. Part I Project Description. Part II Project Design Factors: Overall Considerations. Part III Activity-Area Requirements. Part IV Summary of Area Relationships. Part V Summary of Space Requirements.
The following outline expands the table of contents and gives a clearer picture of what is to be included under educational specifications and how it can be organized. There is a diagram of a sample bubble diagram courtesy of Stafford, King, and Weise, Architects.
The bubble illustrates staff parking and public parking along with the administration building, public access spaces, security, and limited access spaces. The skeletal outline provided in Chapter 4 can be annotated to give a more detailed picture of the complete format and the items to be included in educational specifications. This annotated outline, consisting of parts I, II, III, IV, and V, can be used as a guide to collect and organize information for the educational specifications document.
Because of the complexity and critical nature of information needed for Part III, a sample data collection for ES-1 is provided in Chapter 6. The project description should be as complete as possible and should be agreed to by all stakeholders. It should describe concepts and philosophies held by the see more community that are fundamental to the design and character of the school.
Agreed-on concepts and philosophy should be clearly documented for reference. Although based on the data generated in parts I and II, Part III is the essential element, the heart of educational specifications. The data in Part III help the architect fully understand the function and physical characteristics of every space in the school so that those spaces can support the educational program. A similar process should also be developed to encourage student source to project requirements.
Part III brings together the educational program and the building program into a unified statement by describing goals, functions, and activities and their resultant needs for space in the school. Sample Form ES-1, a suggested tool for organizing the input, is shown below. The form should be filled out by every person on the staff so that all items needed to support educational goals can be included.
The form should be presented to all staff members with the instructions ideally on computer diskand training sessions in its use should be conducted as necessary. The educational specifications committee should then tabulate the data, set priorities, and determine constraints on needs.
All users should provide input so that educational support items are not lost in committee and therefore not transmitted to facility programmers and architects. Immediately after Sample Form ES-1 are lists of typical activity areas or settings for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools. The lists are provided to give an idea of the multitude of spaces that popular literature review editing sites sf to be described.
Because the data collection forms may be voluminous, the educational specifications committee will need to develop a system to evaluate the data and determine priorities. All interested parties should have a chance to input their needs for each space. The data collected here are not all the data required. Questions asked and information called for in parts I, II, IV, and V also need to be answered and collected.
Sample Form ES-2, "Information from the Architect and Other Design Consultants," located in Chapter 7, is intended to ensure that all the information needed is collected and understood by the designers. Your input to the preparation of educational specifications is needed so that facility programmers can include everything required to implement or support the proposed curricula. Please consider all the major and minor activities for london best dissertation hire writer participate in and divide requirements into absolute needs and optional wants.
Provide a description of each educational program and service function in your area of responsibility. Indicate where you could easily share a space with other activities. Identify support spaces, such as preparation areas, toilets, storerooms, and space for equipment. Include all desired spaces or parts of spaces. Use a separate form for each distinct space. Use extra sheets for more information as needed.
Individual activity areas are subsumed under the main headings for activity areas. These are examples only, nomenclature and spaces will vary depending on the program in use. Communication of the information generated in parts I, II, and III is the essential purpose of the educational specifications document.
Summarizing data in lists and diagrams will help clarify requirements for the architect and other interested parties. The following is an example of the type of information that might be useful in a preliminary list. Different program philosophies will require different relationships depending on the level of consideration: 1 health and safety; 2 function; and 3 psychological comfort or aesthetic satisfaction. Listed headings for activity-area groupings are common for most elementary and secondary.
When all the necessary information on space requirements has been collected, a summary must be developed. The summary should include the net popular school cover letter example footage required for each activity area and estimates of the amount of space needed for circulation, popular literature review editing sites sf devices, toilet areas, popular literature review editing sites sf thicknesses, and so forth.
Added together, the figures will provide the total gross square footage required popular literature review editing sites sf the facility. The summary should be prepared with the assistance of the district architect. Note: The writing of educational specifications is often an extra charge in an architectural contract.
The contract with the architect should be negotiated to include all services required, and all contracts should be executed with the aid of legal counsel. If the planned project is to be built with state funds wholly or in partcontact the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, for the latest information on allowable spaces for various functions; telephone Your input to educational specifications preparation is invited to help ensure that everything necessary to implement or support the proposed educational program is included in the project.
Please review all of the information presented by the staff in Form ES-1 or whatever equivalent form the staff may be using popular literature review editing sites sf in the educational specifications as described in parts I, II, III, and IV of this documentthe preparation of which may now be under way in the district. Please be aware that the preparers are not design professionals that the documents are not to be assumed to include everything necessary for the facility.
It will be your privilege and responsibility to augment such information with architectural data necessary to the project and to provide a facility, within budget and space constraints, that meets all requirements. Before you begin to design the project, please request the information you need and pose the questions you want answered regarding each educational program and service function.
Do you have a Form ES-1 or its equivalent for each activity area? Is the information complete? Are concepts, philosophy, and goals clearly stated for your purposes? Have trends, innovations, experimental ideas, and other planned uses been described so that implementation can be accommodated in design? Is the educational function and anticipated use of each area described so that you would be able to develop design concepts and solutions to support the educational requirements?
Do you have the number of users, or person capacity, and approximate square footage needed to accommodate each type of use in the activity area? After an educational specifications document has been developed, an evaluation of the process and the document should begin. A properly executed document provides a useful tool for evaluating every phase of the project: preliminary design, design, construction document development, construction, and occupancy.
The development of educational specifications also provides an opportunity for school districts to define their goals and elicit community involvement. When clearly stated and published, the specifications can be a powerful tool for districts to use in preparing the educational community and the community at large for twenty-first century schools.
The process of developing the document should, then, be open to the community. The school district should provide opportunities for public comments early on; hold public forums to discuss issues; and encourage the local media newspapers and television to comment on the document. While teaching and learning are becoming more complex and exciting as society changes, the number of diverse stakeholders in the educational process has been increasing popular literature review editing sites sf. Each of those groups has its own requirements.
By keeping those needs in mind as educational specifications are being prepared for each new or remodeled facility, our schools can play a major role in popular literature review editing sites sf a strong community in which all groups click a part. It is also an opportunity to review the overall goals of the school and popular literature review editing sites sf district.
The updating should be completed before the process of developing educational specifications is begun. A facilities master plan should be a working document adopted by formal resolution of the school board after public hearings. Updated frequently to keep pace with developing trends and financing alternatives, it should be amended as the district philosophy changes or new programs or facilities are needed. The facilities master plan should also provide the basis for budgeting future capital improvements and creating and implementing plans for financing facilities.
Further, it service canada term professional paper ghostwriting justify the collection of developer fees and provide documentation of facility needs and costs that can be used in legal cases.
The facilities master plan should define and describe which facilities are needed to support the program. A remodeling project requires the same approach to educational specifications as does a new facility.
First, educational issues and trends in curriculum requirements, programs and practices, and community involvement must be addressed and evaluated. Second, demographics and enrollment projections must be determined. Census data should be used to create a picture of the school attendance area or the district or popular literature review editing sites sf as to income level, educational attainment, age distribution, ethnic and racial distribution, and housing units.
Local city and county planners can provide data on future planned growth or non growth. Third, a facilities needs assessment can be conducted by engaging a team of engineers and architects to inspect existing facilities and thereby provide an assessment of the condition of the school s.
Examine major building systems, site conditions, compliance with the American with Disabilities Act, and health and life safety codes. Inspect all spaces for conformance with current standards in lighting, acoustics, square footage, heating and cooling, electrical outlets, and adaptability for future technology systems.
Rate according to current standards and develop options for remediating identified problems. Estimate cost to bring the facilities up to standards. Anticipate ongoing maintenance and upkeep costs. See the Facilities Performance Profile. See also Sample Form ES-3, "Facilities Inspection Summary," in Appendix 10 of this publication. Develop scenarios popular literature review editing sites sf determine whether remodeling or building new facilities is more cost-effective.
Examples follow: Use value engineering concepts for comparison of options to make decisions that get the most for the facility dollar. For instance, it is not cost-effective to spend one-half as much to remodel as to build new if the remodeling extends the life of the facility only a few years and a new school would give another 30 years of service.
Develop a standard popular literature review editing sites sf facilities inspection summary from similar to the one shown in Appendix 10 to help evaluate existing facilities. Use popular literature review editing sites sf inspection summary form to record postoccupancy evaluation. The district should have an ongoing program to reach the community for support. Appendix http://asocialnetwork.co/popular-article-ghostwriters-sites-us.php of this document, in the paragraphs on orientation, refers to public information programs designed to promote acceptance of the educational program and its relationship to read article facility.
Activities to inform people about the school include media features, brochures, and open-house tours that discuss and illustrate the ways the educational community works to educate children. The need for new educational facilities must be explained. Early involvement of children in planning schools means they will take the message home with enthusiasm. The more the community is connected to its schools, the more support it will give. Financing new construction, including remodeling, requires public money.
The public needs to understand why the facilities are absolutely necessary to support the educational program. Community outreach communication should be open and two-way. Ways to garner the support needed include cooperation with the local media newspapers and television ; sponsorship of public forums; invitations to the public to sit on committees, such as educational specifications or master plan development committees; and distribution of written communications available for review by the public.
Support is easier to obtain if advocates popular literature review editing sites sf accessible and responsive to the public. The California School Boards Association CSBA publishes documents on public relations and related topics.
School Boards, Public Relations, and the Media CSBA, discusses in practical terms how to interact with the media to develop a public relations program that works. Schools are subject to the scrutiny, comment, and criticism of the press. In the CSBA publication mentioned previously, Carl F. Hauver, former president of the Public Relations Society of America, states that "public relations is the management function which provides the professional skills necessary to communicate truth effectively to concerned publics.
The following are concepts that are more fully explored in the CSBA publication: Formal face-to-face programs are a necessary part of an effective public relations program. They may be the most important part of communication.
Various avenues that need to be considered are as follows: The development of a new educational specification is an opportunity to invite members of the public to participate in the educational process and thus become vested in the school. Opportunities for public participation include the following: Every written communication from a school, a central office, or a school board is a part of the public relations plan or nonplan of the district.
Included are report cards, daily correspondence, and other necessary communications. Each communication should und pay for my management admission essay Bewertung easy to read and accurate, address the concerns of the addressee, and reflect positively on the district. Content must be coherent and have correct spelling and grammar. In addition to necessary communication, the following list includes specific items that can be included in the public relations plan for the district: Every written piece of material from each school should be reviewed with public relations in mind.
Media presentations should be responded to with thanks or rebuttal as appropriate. The public relations impact of all media presentations should be evaluated and immediately corrected if there are errors. A public relations plan begins at the school site. The front office should be neat, organized, and welcoming. Reception personnel must be caring and responsive.
Each site should have an ongoing training program in public relations emphasizing the responsibilities of every staff member. Other topics to be considered at the school site include the following: Notification to neighbors of events can help create friends of the school.
Each school can increase the credibility of the school system through small acts of consideration. Being a good neighbor and keeping lines of communication open are good public relations.
Selection of the architect should not, therefore, be informal. In addition, the selection of an architect and other design professionals is subject to the State Contract Act.
The process must, therefore, be open to any interested party and subject to public review see the California Public Contract Code. The following paragraphs are based on the publication titled Selecting Architects for Public Projects American Institute of Architects, and publications developed by the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education.
Ensure that the selection committee represents the diversity present in the community and different points of view educators; architects and other planning professionals; community leaders; parents; teachers; and, perhaps, students.
It is important that the announcement be published widely. For the advertisement to attract the most suitable firms, it should include type of project, scope of services required, budget and time constraints, evaluation criteria, forms on which statements of interest and qualifications are to be submitted, submittal deadline, and district contact person.
Request for qualifications forms should be sent to all interested firms. The forms package should include everything needed to evaluate the information and emphasize that submittals in any other form will not be considered.
The task of comparing the qualifications and experience of competitors is difficult. Requiring the use of standard forms will simplify the process. The following may be helpful: standards forms SF"Architects-Engineers and Related Services Questionnaire" Stock number and SF"Architects-Engineers and Related Services Questionnaire for Specific Projects" Stock number Both are available from Forms and Publications, U. General Services; telephone ; FAX Forms B, a standard questionnaire, is available from the American Institute of Architects, New York Avenue, N.
Evaluation of submittals is done by the proposal screening subcommittee and should be documented. A record of who did the preliminary screening should be kept of all submittalsespecially unsuccessful ones.
In the effort to procure the best architect, the screening process should be uncompromising in two areas. Late submittals, incomplete submittals, and submittals not on the required forms should be returned to the sender with an explanatory note. If a firm cannot be responsive to district needs in relatively minor requirements, it may be unresponsive in more critical ways on a building project. Properly submitted and timely submittals should be reviewed with documented criteria, including specific interest in the project, the relevant school experience and expertise of the architect and consultants, performance on previous projects, the availability of key personnel, projected workloads, and any other criteria of interest to the district.
Each of the criteria should be ranked separately. If items are incomplete or are omitted without explanation, the submittal should be rejected at the discretion of the school district. Arrange or list the remaining proposals in ranks that reflect the relative responsiveness of the submittals.
Pass this list to the preliminary interview subcommittee, which will select a manageable number of firms for reference checks, personal interviews, and project and office visits. Check several references because not all factors that make for unsuccessful projects are popular literature review editing sites sf the control of the designers.
The project scope documents should expand on the original advertisement and include a copy of the educational specifications.
The interview panel should be identified by occupation and title if not by name. Ranking criteria to identify the best qualified firm might include such items as design ability, philosophy, experience, demonstrated interest in the project, understanding of project requirements, relevance of previous projects presented during the interview, availability of key personnel, and schedule and budget performance on previous projects.
When the preliminary interviews are complete, select several of the top firms and visit some of their completed projects. Examine postoccupancy evaluations if available. Visit offices to see staff in action and to examine typical plans, specifications, and other documents.
Ask questions about office procedures in handling schedules and construction supervision. Selection of the top-ranked firm is then made by the district governing popular literature review editing sites sf. For more on this subject, see Compensation at U. Architectural Firms [American Institute of Architects, ]. Their considerable effort and expense in applying should be appreciated and acknowledged by the district. Provide debriefing if requested.
Unsuccessful firms need to be educated in the requirements of the district. Explanations of why a firm is unsuccessful are necessary to dispel appearances continue reading favoritism and to encourage future participation in the submittal process.
Be prepared to explain your criteria for selection and tell how the individual firm did not meet your needs. A well-defined district policy on procuring design services is necessary for having good response to requests for proposals. If your agency does not have a formal procedure and the above examples do not fit your needs, contact the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, or the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects or both for popular literature review editing sites sf and counsel.
Additional information can also be obtained from the Popular literature review editing sites sf Institute of Architects, California Council, J Street, SuiteSacramento, CA ; telephone ; FAX The district should explore the subject of project popular literature review editing sites sf during its development of educational specifications to determine whether seeking new forms of project delivery would be advantageous.
How educational specifications are written will depend on your selected method of project delivery design plus construction and should be discussed with a legal adviser early in the project. Each school board should use the project delivery methodology that is most appropriate for the project and is in accordance with legal constraints. A guide to the use of current project delivery methodologies is provided in the Handbook on Project Delivery.
The following paragraphs present an overview of the subject beginning with the executive summary from the Handbook : When hiring the team to design and build a building today, an owner will find that there are many different ways to structure the work. Each of these different project delivery options - meaning, how the various individuals organize Lauf popular dissertation abstract writing for hire for mba Software participation and responsibilities to complete a building project - creates certain advantages and holds potential limitations.
In the case of each district project, the relative merits of the employable delivery systems must be evaluated. This executive summary outlines the key characteristics, phases, uses, and relationships which distinguish one project delivery option from another and which are described extensively in the Handbook on Project Delivery.
These descriptions briefly summarize eight basic options available to owners, architects, contractors, and construction managers in the undertaking of a building project. The Handbook on Project Delivery includes extensive information organized to permit ready comparison of options.
The choice of project delivery methods has become popular literature review editing sites sf significant factor in the building industry, and the handbook offers guidelines for making such choices.
Whatever your district holds important in instruction for young people, selecting an appropriate site must be seen as an integral part of the planning process.
Planning for site selection includes a number of considerations, all of which are related to master planning and some of which are related to educational specifications. A critical element of advance planning is to follow consistent and appropriate site selection procedures. Special consideration should be given to safety, aesthetics, environmental features, and other aspects of the site that will contribute to the learning environment and educational opportunities for students.
Accordingly, environmental regulations, the property acquisition requirements Title 5 of all state agencies, and all local requirements, including fire, safety, and the general plan, must be strictly adhered to. Site selection must be planned in cooperation with other public agencies, developers, and interested planning groups. Because site acquisition can be a lengthy process, selection procedures should begin well in advance of expected need with the establishment of a broadly represented site selection committee.
Sites should be purchased several years before actual need because 1 early purchase may save money in times of steadily increasing land values; 2 early purchase helps ensure a good popular literature review editing sites sf as areas develop, availability is reduced ; 3 postponement may result in the necessity of exercising eminent domain or in accepting a site that is too small, poorly located, or difficult to develop; and 4 tardy acquisition may delay plans for design and construction, thereby exacerbating overcrowding in existing schools.
Site selection criteria should be thoughtfully developed and the process itself carefully understood. Sites should be located to serve the proposed attendance area with maximum convenience and safety of popular literature review editing sites sf. Schools should be located in an area free of excessive noise, obnoxious odors, and toxic conditions affecting air, soil, or water and away from such hazards as airports, electromagnetic fields, earthquake faults, and floods.
Joint-use arrangements with libraries and parks should be considered. The School Site Selection and Approval Guide and the School Popular literature review editing sites sf Analysis and Development Guide should be used as references in establishing site selection criteria and in understanding the site approval process.
Once alternative sites have been reviewed and a first choice has been made, acquisition is the next step. Click here for site acquisition should be handled by one person e.
Two appraisals should be obtained. Existing and proposed site plans should show the layout of existing buildings and grounds, parking and roads, and playfield areas to ensure that the site will support the proposed educational program. This appendix addresses some of the building and popular literature review editing sites sf safety issues that need to be considered in developing educational specifications.
It also includes a facility design response to natural disasters and criminal activity included in your school disaster preparedness plan. Any consideration of facilities will include factors related to site selection, such as ease of supervision and provision for separation of pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles, buses, and delivery vehicles. In addition, adjacent land use, existence of toxic materials, traffic volume, street access, and the neighborhood crime rate need to be evaluated as compatible with school use.
Other considerations include whether adjacent homes or other property that back up to school property lines provide a buffer from neighborhood problems or instead offer concealed access to the site.
Site considerations include the provision of access routes for emergency vehicles acceptable to the local fire department and the implementation of the recommendations contained in School Area Pedestrian Safety. Concerns for campus layout include easy supervision of buildings and grounds and ability to secure the campus when popular literature review editing sites sf. Questions for consideration: Are the main outdoor spaces and playgrounds especially kindergarten on the campus easily supervised from the school office?
Does the campus layout facilitate after-hour supervision by police vehicle patrols? Have the recommendations contained in Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action been implemented? The facility should provide protection from the elements. In cold-weather climates, is there adequate access for snow removal?
Have snow cleats or special ventilation to attics been provided to prevent ice from sliding off roofs onto passersby? Do rainwater leaders present any projection hazard? Do they carry roof drainage directly to popular literature review editing sites sf piping to eliminate water flowing across sidewalks? If the facility is to be used for year-round education, has there been planning for necessary shade areas?
Are there emergency supplies for use if the campus is isolated because of inclement conditions weather, floods, earthquake, and so forth? Is there an evacuation link Safety equipment, including fire hydrants, speed bumps, and contrasting paving surfaces to protect pedestrians, must be provided as needed to protect students and staff from injury.
Design and detailing popular literature review editing sites sf eliminate conditions that allow unauthorized access to rooftops, electrical equipment, and other dangerous places to inhibit children who like to climb and explore. Architectural features can be concealed, recessed, or located so that they cannot be climbed on or injure a playing child. Are walking surfaces slip-resistant and other surfaces smooth, with no sharp projections?
Are exterior-wall finish materials smooth enough not to be an abrasion hazard to passersby and still repel graffiti and vandalism? Have curbs and wheel blocks been used sparingly? Are changes in flooring or paving materials transitioned to minimize trip hazards? Are window projections and door swings located so that they cannot injure users or passersby?
Do bicycle racks promote the safe handling and storage of bikes? Are outdoor sports facilities basketball courts, baseball fields, soccer fields, tennis courts, and so forth configured in the desirable solar orientation for each sport? Have all requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act been met? For additional information call the California Department of Rehabilitation at Special care must be executed in designing adequate popular literature review editing sites sf and providing a healthful ventilation system.
Layout should promote visual supervision popular literature review editing sites sf consider the comfort of neighbors in regard to noise, parking, lighting, and so forth. Decide whether your security system is to protect life or property or both. Should a central security system be monitored on site or off site? Should it provide intrusion detection or motion detection or both at the doors and windows? Should there be telephones in every room? The best security is the ability of staff to observe campus areas in a casual manner and for neighbors to be positive toward the school so that when they notice unusual activity, they will call authorities as necessary.
Building and equipment safety issues are those items that, with thought in selection of materials, design of details, and the maintenance of the facility, can prevent injury in the use of the facility.
Below is a checklist for new and modernized construction prepared in collaboration with the Lionakis-Beaumont Design Group, Architects. The checklist does not supplant information and standards available from the California Department of Education or others regarding continue reading safety or others regarding school safety.
It also does not cover basic life-safety considerations that are required by building codes and covered in the review and approval process of the Division of the State Architect. Natural disasters and criminal activity are the safety issues that concern students, parents, and staff more than any others.
Schools must address those issues and include them in a school disaster preparedness plan. Implementation of the school disaster preparedness plan must be included in the educational specifications.
More importantly, because the safety issues are a concern of the whole community, they cannot be fully addressed except in partnership with local law enforcement and community organizations. Schools can be effective in providing positive and safe after-hour and off-campus events for youths; however, community sponsors and support are necessary. Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations referencing Education Code Section has required schools to have civil defense and disaster preparedness plans since the s.
Currently, no state agency has lead responsibility for ensuring preparedness for school emergencies. No consensus exists as to a standard with which to evaluate school site or district emergency plans, nor is there any approval authority. The responsibility for such plans rests with local entities, such as school districts, county offices of education, and boards of private schools.
The Education Code states that those entities may work with the State Office of Emergency Services but does not mandate any authority or responsibility at the level of the California Department of Education.
Facility activation, user orientation, and postoccupancy evaluation are important to educational specifications in that evaluation completes the planning cycle and provides corrective feedback for the next project.
Activation is the process of placing the facility in operation. The educational specifications are especially important for reference as the project progresses from the completion of construction to the functioning of the facility. During the activation process individual equipment and components as well as systems are checked to ensure that they function together properly.
Records of this process attest to the acceptability of the facility in relation to the educational specifications and provide a database for future evaluation. Facility activation should also deliver a set of maintenance and operations manuals for all systems, subsystems, and building materials. Maintenance and operations manuals and on-site training for employees should be included in the construction documents and provided by the contractor, reviewed by the architect, and supplied to the project as specified in the construction contract.
The manuals should be assembled in a permanent library for use throughout the life of the project, together with drawings and construction specifications edited to reflect as-built conditions. Copies should be available in the school office permanent records as well as in the maintenance offices of the district and at the site. Orientation of staff, students, and the public is necessary if the facility is to be used properly by the community.
The potential of many design features may never be realized popular literature review editing sites sf users are not made aware of popular literature review editing sites sf. A new environment alone will not change behaviors that have developed through experience with existing facilities.
The users should, therefore, be represented in the initial planning stages, and changes in the curriculum should be initiated in existing facilities long before occupancy of the new school. Consequently, a variety of orientation programs directed specifically at details for popular literature review editing sites sf group will be popular literature review editing sites sf. The orientation sessions might take the form of building tours conducted by the design team, including the architect, other consultants, and members of the read more specifications committee.
Project background, popular literature review editing sites sf concepts, and facility relationship to the educational program should be explained.
If the proposed educational program is new or facility components very sophisticated, more intense in-service training may be required for teachers or operational staff. Public information programs may be less detailed than user orientations and may be designed to promote acceptance of the educational program and its relationship to the facility. Means of informing the public about the school include media features, brochures, and open house tours that discuss and illustrate the new educational facility and its relationship to the curriculum.
This document provides technical data on the facility systems and components, cleaning instructions, guarantees, and other vital information.
The construction documents normally include requirements for operation and maintenance manuals on most building materials and systems. The contractor can also be required by the construction documents, as part of the cost of the project, to include personnel training in operation and maintenance items related to the products or systems supplied to auf do my professional critical analysis essay on shakespeare bin project.
Once the facility has been completed, the occupants and community oriented, and the program implemented, it is time to look at the results of the planning, design, and construction efforts. Postoccupancy evaluation includes both a technical evaluation popular literature review editing sites sf all facility subsystems and a functional evaluation of the extent to which the facility meets educational program objectives.
Questions to be asked: Does the environment contribute or not contribute to better learning by students, better teaching, and professionalism by teachers and administrators?
Does the building teach about sustainable architecture and ecology? Well-documented postoccupancy evaluations of existing facilities provide information vital to development of subsequent projects. Postoccupancy evaluation is an essential part of the total planning see more. It should be a continuing popular literature review editing sites sf, at least during the first year the project is in operation, and then repeated at intervals through the next three to five years.
It can be used popular literature review editing sites sf identify changes in the planning process that might be required and identify particular features of the building that should or should not be repeated in future projects.
It is the last stage of the planning process, and, if carefully documented, is the first step in writing educational specifications. At this point the planning process has come full circle. For additional information on facility activation, user orientation, and postoccupancy evaluation, please refer to The Guide for Planning Educational Facilities and The Guide for School Facility Appraisal.
Inspect all designated facilities to provide an assessment of the condition of the school or schools. Inspect for compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title 24, accessibility standards, and health and life safety codes. Rate each item against current standards on a scale of 1 low to 10 high. The constructibility review is a critique click project contract documents for accuracy and coordination.
The constructibility review is designed to coordinate the contract documents to minimize project change orders, improve building quality, ensure compliance with educational specifications, meet budgets, and comply with schedules. Educational Facilities: Planning, Modernization, and Management. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, New Designs for the Comprehensive High School. Berkeley: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Planning Educational Facilities for the Next Century.
Reston, VA: Association of School Business Officials, International, The Effect of Architecture on Education. Baltimore: Maryland Department of Education, A Handbook: Space Planning for the Head Start Learning Environment. Albuquerque: Popular literature review editing sites sf of New Mexico, Control Is Beautiful: Measuring Facility Performance as If People and Buildings Really Mattered. Technical Report NumberCIFR. California Strategic Plan for Parental Involvement in Education: Recommendations for Transforming Schools Through Family-Community-School Partnerships.
Sacramento: California Department of Education, Every Child A Reader: The Report of the California Reading Task Force.
Improving Mathematics Achievement for All California Students: The Report of the California Mathematics Task Force.
Parent Involvement Programs in California Public Schools: Families, Schools, and Communities Working Together. Planning Process for School Site Renovation to Ensure Equity popular literature review editing sites sf Community Input. Palo Alto, California: Palo Alto Unified School District, Rising to source Challenge: A New Agenda for California Schools and Communities.
Denver: Education Commission of the States, San Diego City Schools Educational Specifications for Future Middle Schools. DeJong and Associates, Inc. Schools for the 21st Century: Final Report.
Science Safety Handbook for California High Schools. Americans with Disabilities Act: A Comprehensive Overview. Sacramento: California Department of Rehabilitation, Americans with Disabilities Act: Title II Self-Evaluation Guide.
California Accessibility Reference Manual. Sacramento: California Department of General Services, Division of the State Architect, Access Compliance, Office of Regulation Services, Gilbert and Steven D. Americans with Disabilities Act: Access Guide -Survey Checklist. In Search of Understanding: The Case for popular literature review editing sites sf Constructivist Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Computer Facilities Planning: A Guide for Managers, Users, Architects, and Contractors Second edition.
Los Alamitos: Apple Computer, Connect, Compute, and Compete: The Report of the Education Technology Task Force. Honey, Margaret and Andres Henriquez.
Telecommunications and K Educators: Findings from a National Survey. New York: Bank Street College of Education, Center for Technology in Education, Maak, Laurie E, Robert D. Carlitz and Kathleen M. Means, Barbara and others. Using Technology to Support Education Reform. Department of Education, Report of the CoSN-FARNET Project on K Networking, Washington, D. Prepared by the U. Popular literature review editing sites sf of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, SRI.
Government Printing Office, Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action. The following publications may be ordered from the California Department of Education, Publications Division, Sales Office, P. BoxSacramento, CA ; telephone ; FAX ; toll-free, A list of publications available from the Department can also be obtained by writing to or calling the Sales Office. Toward a State of Esteem: The Final Report of the California Task Force to Promote Self-esteem and Popular literature review editing sites sf and Social Responsibility Information about the following publications may be requested from the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, at Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams: Facilities Planning and Construction Virtual Schoolhouse: A Report to the Legislature on Distribution Infrastructure for Advanced Technologies in the Construction of New Schools, K, Information about the following publications may be requested from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, E.
Via de Ventura, SuiteScottsdale, AZ ; telephone Designing Places for Learning. Published jointly by Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, and the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia, Popular literature review editing sites sf Guide for School Facility Appraisal.
Prepared popular literature review editing sites sf Harold L. Edward Lilley, West Virginia University, Information about the following publications may be requested from the American Institute of Architects: Compensation at U. Architectural FirmsAmerican Institute of Architects; telephone Popular literature review editing sites sf on Project DeliveryAmerican Institute of Architects, California Council, J Street, SuiteSacramento, CA ; telephone Selecting Architects for Public ProjectsAmerican Institute of Architects; telephone School Boards, Public Relations, and the MediaCalifornia School Boards Association, Beacon Blvd.
Note: Some of the references cited in this section may no longer be in print or otherwise available. The publication data were supplied by the School Facilities Planning Division. Questions about the availability of the references or the accuracy of the citations should be directed to the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone California Department of Education. CA Dept of Education. Work Experience Education WEE. Common Core State Standards.
Multi-Tiered System of Supports. Academic Performance Index API. Accountability Progress Reporting APR. Adequate Yearly Progress AYP. Alternative Schools Accountability Popular literature review editing sites sf ASAM.
Local Educational Agency Accountability Report Card. School Accountability Report Card SARC. State Accountability Report Card. Title I, Part A-Accountability. California School Recognition Program. California Distinguished Schools Program. California Teachers of the Year. Classified School Employees of the Year. California Gold Ribbon Schools. Popular literature review editing sites sf Assessment of Student Performance and Progress Popular literature review editing sites sf. CA English Language Development Test CELDT.
CA High School Exit Examination CAHSEE. CA High School Proficiency Popular literature review editing sites sf CHSPE. English Language Proficiency Assessments for CA ELPAC. Grade Two Diagnostic Assessment.
High School Equivalency Tests HSET. National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP. Physical Fitness Testing PFT. Smarter Balanced Assessment System. Popular literature review editing sites sf Cost Rates ICR. Standardized Account Code Structure SACS. Local Control Funding Formula.
California Basic Educational Data System CBEDS. California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System CALPADS. California School Information Services CSIS. Longitudinal Education Article source Systems. Staff Data Files Downloadable. Free and Reduced Price Meal Eligibility Data.
Statewide System of School Support S4. Specialized Programs Other Topics. School Attendance Review Boards. Clearinghouse for Multilingual Documents. Learning Support Other Topics.
This is the accessible alternative version of the educational specifications is to help school districts develop specificaitons based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function. Introduction: How to Use This Document. Chapter 1 - The Meaning of Popular literature review editing sites sf Specifications. Chapter 2 - The Popular literature review editing sites sf of Educational Specifications in Facility Planning.
Chapter 3 - Development of Educational Specifications. Chapter 4 - Suggested Format for Educational Specifications. Chapter 5 - Annotated Outline for an Educational Specifications Document: Parts I and II. Chapter 6 - Part III of the Annotated Outline: Activity-Area Requirements. Chapter 7 - Parts IV and V of the Annotated Outline: Summaries of Area Relationships and Space Requirements.
Appendix 1: Master Planning and Overall Goals. Appendix 2: Remodeling Facilities. Appendix 3: Public Relations. Appendix 4: Selecting the Architect. Appendix 5: Project Delivery. Appendix 6: Site Selection. Appendix 7: Safe Architecture for Schools. Appendix 8: School Disaster Preparedness Plan.
Appendix 9: Facility Activation, Orientation, and Postoccupancy Evaluation. Appendix Sample Form ES Facilities Inspection Summary. Appendix Constructibility Reviews. State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
They are also listed in the California Code of Regulations, Title 5Section aas follows:. Enrollment of the school and the grade-level configuration. Emphasis in curriculum content or teaching methodology that influences school design. Type, number, size, function, special characteristics of each space, and spatial relationships of the instructional area that are consistent with the educational program.
Community functions that may affect the school design. To implement the regulations and assist school districts in preparing educational specifications, the Department has provided two options for districts to consider when requesting plan approvals. Department Management Services Branch.
School Facilities Planning Division. Organization of This Document. This document is divided into chapters to parallel the logical development of educational specifications:. Chapter 1 discusses the meaning of educational specifications. Popular literature review editing sites sf 2 delineates the role of educational specifications in facility planning and the effects of a restructured curriculum on those specifications.
Chapter 3 describes the process of developing educational specifications. Chapter 4 suggests a format for the educational specifications document. The outline is divided into five parts: I Project Description; II Project Design Factors; III Activity-Area Popular literature review editing sites sf IV Summary of Area Relationships; and V Summary of Space Requirements.
It is presented in skeletal form to give a quick overall view of what is included in educational specifications. Chapter 5 presents an annotated outline of the specifications for Part I, "Project Description," and Part II, "Project Design Factors.
Chapter 6 contains Part III, titled "Activity-Area Requirements," of the annotated outline. Chapter 7 contains the last two parts of the annotated outline - Part IV, "Summary of Area Relationships," and Part V, "Summary of Space Requirements. The appendixes contain short articles providing background information.
Note: Completion of the annotated outline and sample form for all five parts, together with public review, will produce the data needed to prepare a complete educational specifications document. Importance of Educational Specifications. Examples might include the following:.
If popular literature review editing sites sf project architect does not include teacher preparation space or other spaces necessary to support learning in design development, such spaces can be included in a later phase of the project only with difficulty. If, however, the design development documents are reviewed in relation to the educational specifications before the acceptance of the design development phase, the needed changes can be made easily and cost-effectively.
The value of that approach popular literature review editing sites sf true for the multitude of spaces, popular literature review editing sites sf, and systems that exist in every project. If, in design development, conflicts arise between educational requirements and budget constraints that necessitate elimination of one space in favor of another, referring to a well-written educational specification may make it easier to decide what to eliminate.
It may also help to illustrate where joint use may be possible. For example, offices might double as conference spaces; or two departments might be able to use the same preparation space.
If a plug or switch necessary for the operation of equipment is forgotten in the preparation of construction documents or during construction, a formal review of the educational specifications document during those phases will make the correction of the oversight easier and more cost-effective to accomplish.
The educational specifications review should be used to avoid expensive change orders. If, after the project has been completed, someone on the staff or in the community objects to the way the school operates, a review of the educational specifications will show how the school meets requirements previously agreed on.
This publication emphasizes the importance popular literature review editing sites sf developing consensus on educational specifications before a project is designed. Comprehensive educational specifications link facility design to the educational program and serve as documentation for the completed facility. What Educational Specifications Are. What Educational Specifications Are Not. The relationship of educational specifications to a facilities master plan can be seen in the following outline:.
A Facilities Master Plan. Articulates district educational goals and philosophy. Sets guidelines and addresses major facilities issues to assist in the decision-making process. Assesses the condition and adequacy of existing facilities.
Identifies needed improvements and their implementation costs. Establishes guidelines for educational specifications popular literature review editing sites sf to each site.
Establishes procedures for selecting an architect. Formulates a capital improvement plan, including estimated costs, timeline for construction, and project delivery methods.
Documents and analyzes local demographic information, including predictions for community growth. Establishes criteria for site selection and outlines procedures for acquisition. Delineates working relationships with city and county governments.
Allows for community participation, support, and use of facilities when appropriate. Educational specifications are a part of a total planning process, a natural outgrowth of a comprehensive facilities master plan. Figure 1 shows a circle with the process. The process is as follows:. Evaluation of existing properties and growth.
Development of educational specifications. Development and review of the design. Development and review of click at this page documents. Facilities activation and training or orientation. Evaluation of Existing Properties and Growth. Development of Educational Specifications. Development and Review of the Design. Development and Review of Construction Documents.
Facilities Activation and Training or Orientation. Effects of Restructured Curriculum on Educational Specifications. First, the educational community must develop a consensus as to which concepts in the new curriculum and instructional delivery systems are feasible and popular literature review editing sites sf to adopt in their district.
Second, the educational community, with the help of the architect or consultants or bothmust develop comprehensive educational specifications so that the designer will not waste architectural design time on space for programs that will not be implemented. Third, the architect, with direction from educators, must translate the educational specifications into settings for activities and a facility that will support popular literature review editing sites sf desired results for students.
Before the architect begins a design, the educational popular literature review editing sites sf should develop complete educational specifications. Available Sources of Information. Development of Procedures and Organization. Selection of the Program Director. Attributes to be looked for in selecting a director are as follows:. Administrative ability, including leadership characteristics, mediation skills, ability to delegate, and oral and written communication skills. Background in and understanding of educational issues.
Establishment of the Required Organization. The size of the required organization may be as small as one person for a small remodeling project or as complex as the example of the committee outlined below. Administration subcommittees collect data for each administration or support function.
Contributions from all certificated and classified staff should be represented in the data collection. Educational subcommittees collect data from the teaching and curriculum staff and from curriculum guides for each educational discipline.
Contributions from all certificated and classified educational staff should be represented in the data collection. The coordination subcommittee reviews data from subcommittees, presents the data to the advisory committee, arranges for support functions, and develops the timeline for development of educational specifications.
Selection of Committee Members and Consultants. Assignment of Roles to All Members. Action List the responsible group or individual. Provide leadership and establish goals and objectives for committee and for district. Will students, individually or in small or large groups, move from the facility to other areas or facilities?
How many students go from where to where? Report to school board. Schedule and coordinate meetings. Define functions to be housed according to the educational program in each groping or area of instruction. Organize subcommittee information for review by other committee groups. Review and comment on educational specifications in process. Collect and analyze data click here documents.
Include the impact of the district facilities master plan, the technology master plan, and other long-range plans on the project. Consider the need for consultants for coordination or specialized expertise.
Select the architect see Appendix 4. Determine the method of project delivery see Appendix 5. Prepare a rough draft. Review contents and revise rough draft. Present points of view to the community, click to see more, and the board. Ensure that all points of view are adequately considered.
Set up a design communication center or hotline to facilitate public awareness of the programming and planning process. Interact with other agencies, such as the city planning and recreation districts, and keep them informed of project progress. Consider the joint use of facilities, such as playfields, libraries, assembly spaces, and gymnasiums.
Obtain committee sign-off and board approval. Approval Process and Authority. Public, including governmental agencies, such as planning, parks and recreation, and other joint-use partners. Board of education trustees. Teachers including athletic directors and counselorsand paraprofessional instructional staff. Maintenance, grounds, and custodial staff. Community groups, chamber of commerce, and so on. City and county officials. Special program staff e. Documents for Educational Specifications Committee.
Have or popular literature review editing sites sf the following documents:. California Code of Regulations, Title 5. District goals, objectives, and philosophy. Educational program expressed in state and local curriculum guides.
The Guide for Planning Educational Facilities Available from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International CEFPIE. Other CEFPI planning documents include Preparing Your School Building for TechnologyDesigning Places for Learningand The Guide for School Facility Appraisal Community general plan county or city.
Publications available from the California Department of Education. Call the Publications Division, Sales Office, at for a catalog of curriculum guides and other publications:. Building the Future: K Technology Network Planning Guide California Environmental Education Resource Guide Caught in the Middle: Educational Reform for Young Adolescents in California Public Schools The Form of Reform: School Facility Design - Implications for California Educational Reform Here They Come, Ready or Not: Report of the School Readiness Task Force Elementary Grades Task Force Report Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action School Facilities Planning Guide School Nutrition Facility Planning Guide Schools for the Twenty-First Century Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools Second to None - A Vision of the New California High School: The Report of creative writing writers london California High School Task Force Publications available from the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone Facilities Popular literature review editing sites sf Profile Guide for the Development of a Long-Range Facilities Plan Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators School Site Analysis and Development Guide School Site Selection and Approval Guide Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams: Facilities Planning and Construction Virtual Schoolhouse: A Report to the Legislature on Distribution Infrastructures for Advanced Technologies in the Construction of New Schools, K Prepared by the Office of the State Architect, California Department of General Services Publications available from the California School Boards Association pertaining to planning and financing school construction.
Address: Beacon Blvd. Postoccupancy evaluations of district schools. Handbook on Project Delivery Available from the American Institute of Architects, California Council; telephone Indoor Air Quality: Tools for Schools Action Kit Developed by the U. Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U. Government Printing Office, P.
BoxPittsburgh, PA order processing code: ; FAX ; telephone School Area Pedestrian Safety Available from the California Department of Transportation, Royal Oaks Drive, Sacramento, CA ; telephone; Handbook for Public Playground Safety current edition. Available from the U. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC Contact the California Department of Health Services for information on current playground safety regulations; telephone See Selected References at the back of this document for other publications that may be of interest to the educational specifications committee.
Use this worksheet to track start dates, review dates, approval dates, and completion dates. Budget and Approval for Development of Educational Specifications. Staff, support, consultants, salaries, and travel costs. Printing and duplicating costs. Forms for Uniform Data Collection.
Selection of an Architect. Discussion of Project Delivery. Selection of a Site. Process for Development of Documents. The process may be divided into three phases:. Publish and distribute the names and duties of the program director popular literature review editing sites sf the educational specifications advisory committee and its subcommittees and consultants. Include the schedule and budget if appropriate. Distribute data collection forms to users, consultants, and others.
Include in the instructions due dates for return. Some data collection efforts become stalled until those involved become knowledgeable as to the meaning and purpose of educational specifications and the reasons for the acquisition of certain data. For that reason discussion meetings or short training sessions for staff persons asked popular literature review editing sites sf provide program information are useful.
Data collection forms are suggested in parts I, II, III, IV, and V in chapters Summarize and popular literature review editing sites sf data collected, again using forms similar to those used in data collection. The summary can be done by popular literature review editing sites sf individual or by a writing committee. One of the most efficient, democratic, and time-saving methods is the charrette process, in which all participants meet together for perhaps three days of intensive interaction.
All decision makers are present, and all data collected are presented, discussed, and recorded. By the end of the third day, typically, a rough draft of the data is presented to the group for review and approval. Final editing can then be done by an appointed individual or committee.
Educational specifications should convey clear educational objectives to the design team. Good design solutions depend on careful interpretation of the educational specifications by designers and feedback from members of the educational specifications committee.
The following is presented to help facilitate the process:. Organization and Content of the Document. Document organization must be logical and user friendly. Suggested Outline for Educational Specifications.
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When I undertook the task of writing a scientific literature review article last year, I had hoped that a Google search would reveal editor for hire online handful of how-to pages thoughtfully created by veterans of this particular writing process.
I found nothing of the sort, so I plowed ahead on my own, inventing techniques for myself. I was running a protein over a nickel column on a Sunday evening in February when my adviser approached me about co-authoring a review article for Annual Review of Biochemistry. That was fine with me — as a fifth-year graduate student, I had learned to cope with, and even prefer, extreme independence.
To be honest, I was excited to have this opportunity to examine the literature in depth and to create something useful out of it. Our topic was caspase substrates, a diverse group of proteins essential for programmed cell death and thus important to our understanding of how to kill cancer cells. I would have to assess the limits imposed by the journal 30 pages, six months as well as my own limits and the necessity to balance the writing project with click at this page work that was essential to finishing my Ph.
Narrowing the scope of the article to conform to these boundaries was perhaps the popular literature review editing sites sf challenge of this process.
Knowing that I work better when I focus on one project at a time, I spent the next two months carrying out all of my regular lab work while only pondering the review article and skimming the literature when I had time. After that, I transitioned to popular literature review editing sites sf reading and writing. Afternoons I often spent writing at my apartment or at the library on campus. Popular literature review editing sites sf tried to reassure myself by remembering that I had been rather good at writing term papers in college; but this was a larger task and one with the potential for having an impact learn more here someone, somewhere, sometime who wanted to learn about caspase substrates.
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I hope the following tips will help other scientists who find themselves in this kind of uncharted territory. Distilling all sorts popular services editor descriptive essay us data from experiments done by scientists all around the world into a coherent story turned out to be very satisfying.
I look forward to doing it again someday, perhaps in a somewhat more efficient manner. Point 6, enlightened check this out so much. Arthur Roberts Hi Emily, By chance I stumbled over your report of writing this grant review. Your tips and points are very useful for any researcher in this situation and even for me being a Professor of Laboratory Medicine. I have never written a review article in my life, and reading your narrative I clearly know why I have always turned down such offers, as those would have amounted to a tremendous piece of work.
Apart from your approach and struggle for overview I would like to mention that making a mind map has always helped me to a great deal in my scientific writing. Perhaps you may want to elaborate on this topic a bit in your tips and tricks I very much enjoyed reading your text, here.
I am writing a review and I think your advices are very useful. Hello, thanks a lot for providing a valuable information. Vishal Ghorpade, Post graduate student in Pharmacology, B. Medical Popular literature review editing sites sf, Pune, India. Am writing a review and will definitely try that!. Elizabeth I am a surgeon working in Sri Lanka. Your tips gave me some inspiration to complete my review article, as I was just staggering with it and trying to excuse myself with clinical work!!
Arinda i think i know what middle school u went to can u tell me so i can see if im right????? Your popular literature review editing sites sf of the message is fantastic. Many thanks for sharing!! Sri This is a struggle with me and the points mentioned are very helpful. Take Your Best Shot! Tips for writing your first scientific literature review article. Comment on this item: Rating: Our comments are moderated. We would appreciate it if you signed your name to your comment.
More from the current issue EDUCATION Essay: Popular literature review editing sites sf support goes a long way NEWS FROM THE HILL How you can work with us to support science RETROSPECTIVE Remembering Carolyn W. Photo courtesy of Matthew Perry.
Our comments are moderated. Arthur Roberts EDUCATION Essay: Early support goes a long way NEWS FROM THE HILL How you can work with us to support science RETROSPECTIVE Remembering Carolyn W.
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